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Graphene-Primarily based Electrochemical Sensing of Harmful Herbicide

Though glyphosate is a broadly used unhazardous herbicide, its in-field detection is difficult because of the lack of moveable tools. Regardless of the presence of this herbicide in floor waters, farmers’ urine, and crop residues, speedy field-deployable, and user-friendly sensors are at the moment unavailable, which necessitates the transportation of samples to laboratories.

​​​​​​​Examine: Enzymatic Laser-Induced Graphene Biosensor for Electrochemical Sensing of the Herbicide Glyphosate. Picture Credit score: FrankHH/

In an article not too long ago revealed within the journal International Challenges, a platinum-decorated laser-induced graphene (LIG)  biosensor was developed with immobilized flavoenzyme glycine oxidase (GlyOx) and used to detect glyphosate herbicide, as it’s a substrate for GlyOx. Thus, this graphene biosensor offered a scaffold for enzyme attachment.

The outcomes revealed that the graphene biosensor exhibited a detection vary of 10 to 260 micromoles with a restrict of detection (LOD) of three.03 micromoles and a sensitivity of 0.991 nanoamperes per micrometer. The graphene biosensor confirmed minimal interference by different pesticides and herbicides, together with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, atrazine, parathion-methyl, dicamba, and thiamethoxam.

Moreover, the developed graphene biosensor was additionally examined in opposition to crop residue fluids and sophisticated river water, validating the present platform as a selective methodology for detecting glyphosate for meals evaluation and herbicide mapping.

Graphene Biosensor for Detection of Glyphosate Herbicide

Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant. Regardless of of nontoxicity of this herbicide to people and animals, its motion into floor waters and underground accumulation after heavy rains are regarding points impacting the setting and human well being. Publicity to glyphosate herbicide might result in numerous well being hazards, together with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, coronary heart illness, Parkinson’s illness, and infertility in females.

The present detection methodology for glyphosate consists of laboratory-based methods like mass spectroscopy and liquid/fuel chromatography, that are costly tools with advanced protocols and require the transportation of samples to the laboratory. Therefore, there’s a want for an economical, in-field sensor to beat the drawbacks of pattern transportation to the laboratory.

Though sensing modalities embrace field-effect transistors (FETs) and chemiluminescence for glyphosate herbicide monitoring past the laboratory, these sensors require cleanroom situations, making them unsuitable for in-field use.

The detection of glyphosate herbicide based mostly on electrochemical sensing is an economical and area deployable methodology that facilitates the monitoring and mapping of this herbicide contamination throughout giant area areas. These electrochemical sensors permit detection of the herbicide even in turbid samples and supply a digital readout of the goal marker’s focus.

Carbon-based biomaterials like graphene biosensors are low-cost supplies with promising electrical properties, giant particular floor space/porosity, and are appropriate for in-field environmental sensing. LIG graphene biosensors contain a laser engraving course of that circumvents the necessity for graphene synthesis, print, solution-phase inks, and post-print annealing.

By way of pesticides, the graphene biosensors have been beforehand used to detect neonicotinoids, which have been additional coupled with horseradish peroxidase to detect organophosphorus hydrolase, atrazine, and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, the graphene biosensors are viable pesticide sensors.

Enzymatic Laser-Induced Graphene Biosensor for Glyphosate Herbicide Detection

Within the current examine, LIG, a graphene biosensor, was used to detect the glyphosate herbicide. The platinum (Pt) nanoparticles adorned LIG circuit and improved its electrochemical reactivity. Furthermore, its biofunctionalization with the GlyOx enzyme facilitated selective monitoring of the glyphosate herbicide. Thus, a Pt-GlyOx-LIG sensor was developed, demonstrating a glyphosate linear sensing vary between 10 and 260 micromoles with a response time of 150 seconds, a sensitivity of 0.991 nanoamperes per micrometer, and LOD of three.03 micromoles.

The developed graphene biosensor confirmed minimal interference as a consequence of generally used neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and herbicides. Moreover, restoration checks have been carried out in advanced fluids to validate the in-field usability of this graphene biosensor. Right here, the sensor was uncovered to spiked soybean and corn residues and river water samples collected from the South Skunk River in Iowa. 

The outcomes revealed barely greater recoveries for soybean and corn residues, attributed to the oxidation of the innate glycine composition in every crop. Thus, this cost-effective graphene biosensor was demonstrated to be deployable on a big scale to observe and map glyphosate herbicide in agricultural watersheds.


To conclude, the current work demonstrated using GlyOx and a laser-induced graphene biosensor to detect the glyphosate herbicide. This methodology concerned the event of Pt-decorated LIG sensors, revealing the scalability of this fabrication methodology to forestall the graphene synthesis, exfoliation, thermal annealing, and formulation of the ink.

The wonderful electrical properties, giant electrochemical floor space, electrocatalytic websites, and useful teams of LIG have been conducive to biosensing properties in developed graphene biosensors. The Pt-GlyOx-LIG sensor confirmed a detection vary of 10 to 260 micromoles with a response time of 150 seconds, and an LOD of three.03 micromoles. Moreover, this graphene biosensor confirmed minimal interference with different pesticides and herbicides because of the presence of the GlyOx enzyme.


Johnson, Z. T., Jared, N., Peterson, J. Ok., Li, J., Smith, E. A., Walper, S. A., Hooe (2022). Enzymatic Laser-Induced Graphene Biosensor for Electrochemical Sensing of the Herbicide Glyphosate. International Challenges.

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