Novel SERS Platform to Detect DNA Sequences


Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is likely one of the most steadily used dyes for utility in dye lasers and as a fluorescence tracer. R6G additionally serves as a mannequin dye to probe the character of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) impact. 

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​​​​​​​Examine: Nanogold-capped poly(DEGDMA) microparticles as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for DNA detection. Picture Credit score: Leigh Prather/Shutterstock.com

In an article revealed within the Journal of Physics D: Utilized Physics, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-decorated poly(diethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (DEGDMA) microparticles-based novel platform was used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. The microparticles embellished with AuNPs confirmed a big SERS enhancement within the R6G Raman sign in comparison with the naked counterparts. 

For the excitations at 532, 633, and 785 nanometers, the one in near-infrared confirmed the best enhancement on the substrate and excellent spatial uniformity and temporal stability. The sensible utility of the fabricated SERS substrate was demonstrated with DNA detection in Giardia lamblia parasite

SERS Substrates for Raman Spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy makes use of the interplay of sunshine with matter and helps detect the attribute vibrations and the molecular make-up of the matter. SERS enhances the Raman depth based mostly on the interplay of the excitation gentle with the nanostructure’s plasmons.

SERS serves as a delicate analytical methodology for detecting chemically and biologically essential species. Regardless of the important position of SERS in medical prognosis, biochemistry, and toxin sensing, SERS-active supplies that provide good Raman enhancement with excessive stability and reproducibility stay a problem.

Though copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and Au have been precedented as appropriate metals, Au-based SERS substrates have been also used in earlier research to reinforce the Raman sign. The wavelength area for SERS depends upon the fabric. Nevertheless, modifying the form, dimension, and morphology of the substrate helps tune the wavelength requirement.

SERS-active, metal-coated nanostructures based mostly on non-metallic substrates have been lately explored for numerous detection strategies. The first benefit of utilizing non-metallic supplies is to acquire large-area SERS substrates. To this finish, polymerization is advantageous for getting ready the SERS floor template.

R6G is extensively used as a lasing medium and fluorescence tracer. Earlier studies talked about that monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate–ethylene dimethacrylate) rods immobilized with AgNPs served as a SERS substrate for detecting R6G. Equally, the identical monolithic polymer embellished with AuNPs confirmed excessive sensitivity in SERS measurements.

Nanogold-Capped Poly(DEGDMA) Microparticles as SERS Substrates​​​​​​​

The current work fabricated and characterised a novel SERS-active substrate based mostly on AuNP-capped poly(diethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (DEGDMA) microparticles. These microparticles have been ready by polymerization initiated by gamma radiation with out utilizing an initiator or stabilizer.

SERS enhancement properties of AuNP-decorated polymeric microparticles have been demonstrated utilizing an aqueous resolution of R6G that served as a Raman-active goal. The efficiency of the SERS substrate was analyzed, together with the SERS enhancement issue, Raman excitation wavelength, spatial uniformity, temporal stability, and laser energy dependence. 

The Raman spectra of R6G confirmed Raman bands at 611, 770, and 1182-centimeter inverse akin to C–C–C ring vibration mode (in-plane), C–H bending mode (out-of-plane), and the C–H bending (in-plane), respectively. Moreover, the band at 1311-centimeter inverse corroborated the N-H bending mode, and the Raman bands at 1362, 1511, and 1648-centimeter inverse have been associated to C–C stretching mode within the R6G molecule.

The compatibility of AuNP-capped poly(DEGDMA) composite substrate for SERS was analyzed by way of DNA detection utilizing probe- and target-DNA molecules of the β-giardin gene in Giardia lamblia parasite. The outcomes revealed that the detected peaks adopted native Raman bands of adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) bases, beforehand reported within the literature.

Conclusion

To summarize, novel SERS substrate based mostly on AuNP-decorated poly(DEGDMA) microspheres have been fabricated by way of polymerization, initiated by gamma radiation. The examine of the SERS enhancement and plasmonic properties of AuNP-capped poly(DEGDMA) composite substrate revealed good SERS sensitivity, demonstrated by the detection of 20 micromoles per liter focus of R6G dye with SERS analytical enhancement issue (AEF) of 4.4 x 103.

Moreover, the fabricated AuNP-decorated poly(DEGDMA) SERS substrate was secure for as much as two months. The ready SERS substrate’s capability for DNA detection was demonstrated utilizing probe- and target-DNA sequences of Giardia lamblia parasite’s β-giardin gene.

The outcomes revealed that the AuNP-capped poly(DEGDMA) composite substrate is a promising SERS platform for DNA detection and a possible SERS substrate for biosensing utility.

Reference

Mahmood, M. H., Jaafar, A., Himics, L., Péter, L., Rigó, I., Zangana, S., Bonyár, A., Veres, M. (2022). Nanogold-capped poly (DEGDMA) microparticles as surface-enhanced‎ Raman scattering substrates for DNA detection. Journal of Physics D: Utilized Physics. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6463/ac7bba


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