Rockset Is As much as 9.4x Quicker than Apache Druid on the Star Schema Benchmark

Rockset launched new numbers for the Star Schema Benchmark in April 2022. Learn the way Rockset is 1.67 instances sooner than ClickHouse and 1.12 instances sooner than Druid within the newest efficiency weblog put up.

Actual-time analytics is all about deriving insights and taking actions as quickly as knowledge is produced. When damaged down into its core necessities, real-time analytics means two issues: entry to recent knowledge and quick responses to queries. These are basically two measures of latency, which we time period knowledge latency and question latency, respectively.

Knowledge latency is the time from when knowledge is produced to when it may be queried, and is a perform of how effectively a database can maintain writes. Because it normally will get much less focus in benchmarks, we launched RockBench, a knowledge latency benchmark, final September. Utilizing RockBench, we ascertained Rockset’s suitability for a lot of real-time analytics functions as a consequence of its means to maintain knowledge latency to beneath 1 second, whereas ingesting 1 billion occasions per day, on an ordinary 4XLarge Digital Occasion.

Question Latency and the Star Schema Benchmark

Question latency is the second key measure of real-time analytics efficiency and is the main target of the remainder of this put up.
To judge question latency, we turned to the Star Schema Benchmark (SSB), an industry-standard benchmark to measure database efficiency on analytical functions. The SSB was designed for a batch analytics situation, somewhat than real-time analytics, however will nonetheless yield helpful perception into Rockset’s efficiency on analytical queries.

The SSB has additionally been used for efficiency measurements of different trendy knowledge applied sciences. In June 2020, Indicate launched a research of Apache Druid and Google BigQuery efficiency on the SSB. For the Rockset benchmark, we used the identical {hardware} sources that had been used within the Druid benchmark to supply larger context for our SSB analysis.

As much as 9.4x Quicker than Druid

From the benchmarking outcomes, we noticed one SSB question execute 9.4x sooner on Rockset than on Druid, with many queries operating 2x to 4x sooner. The whole SSB suite ran 1.5x sooner on Rockset in comparison with Druid. This demonstrates higher efficiency with useful resource parity, since pricing was not out there for a real price-performance comparability.

In making these comparisons, we acknowledge we’re not specialists in configuring Druid, so we relied on a benchmark report from those that have probably the most data about their system and may tune it greatest. As well as, benchmarks signify a snapshot in time, and techniques will get sooner with every new launch. We’re utilizing the latest benchmark printed by Indicate for comparability, however we anticipate Druid efficiency will proceed to enhance, as will Rockset’s.

Operating the Star Schema Benchmark on Rockset

Benchmark Overview

The SSB contains a set of 13 analytical SQL queries that present a superb mixture of practical and selectivity protection.

We performed the benchmark utilizing SSB knowledge at scale issue 100, which corresponds to 100GB and 600M rows of knowledge. We denormalized the generated knowledge previous to loading to supply a extra direct comparability to the Druid benchmark, which prevented query-time joins, since Druid solely lately added some restricted be a part of assist.


Determine 1: Efficiency harness used to generate and cargo SSB knowledge, run queries and measure question runtimes

Loading into Rockset was easy and required zero configuration, aside from specifying some keys for column-based clustering. As soon as the SSB knowledge was loaded into Rockset, we ran a load-generator question script, based mostly on the Rockset Python shopper, that issued queries and measured runtimes.

Benchmark Outcomes

We recorded the next runtimes throughout the 13 SSB queries.


Determine 2: Benchmark outcomes when operating SSB on Rockset (600M rows, 100GB knowledge set)

All queries within the SSB suite executed in beneath 1 second on Rockset, with a median runtime of 254 ms. This consequence demonstrates Rockset’s means to run complicated analytics with sub-second efficiency, a standard requirement for real-time analytics functions.

When evaluating to those outcomes with Druid’s, we observe that 9 out of the 13 queries ran sooner on Rockset. Rockset was 9.4x sooner on the question with the biggest speedup, with many queries within the 2x to 4x vary, whereas Druid’s largest benefit was a 3.2x speedup. The suite of 13 queries accomplished in 4,146 ms on Rockset in comparison with 6,043 ms on Druid, equivalent to a 1.5x speedup total. The next figures present Rockset’s question runtimes in comparison with these reported in Indicate’s Druid and BigQuery paper.


Determine 3: Evaluating Rockset and Druid SSB outcomes


Determine 4: Graph exhibiting Rockset, Druid and BigQuery runtimes on SSB queries

How Rockset Accelerates Actual-Time Analytics

A number of Rockset options work in live performance to speed up these SSB queries and real-time analytics on the whole.

  • Converged Index™
  • Column-based clustering
  • Vectorization

Converged Index

Rockset shops all ingested knowledge in a Converged Index™, which is a mix of indexes and is probably the most environment friendly technique to manage knowledge in order that it’s out there for querying nearly immediately and queries carry out extremely quick.

Every question can reap the benefits of the index that’s greatest suited to it and results in the quickest execution. As an example, extremely selective queries sometimes profit from utilizing the inverted index, whereas queries that require aggregations over giant numbers of information will profit from utilizing the column-based index. By indexing knowledge in several methods, a number of varieties of queries may be executed effectively with none guide intervention.

Column-based clustering

Customers can configure column-based clustering in order to colocate knowledge in response to a clustering key they specify. This maximizes the chance for sequential entry and reduces the quantity of knowledge that must be scanned for every question.


Rockset makes use of columnar knowledge chunks to trade knowledge between question execution operators. This enables vectorized processing, the place operations are carried out on many values, as an alternative of 1 worth, at a time, leading to extra environment friendly question execution.

What This Means for Builders of Actual-Time Analytics

With this SSB efficiency analysis, we decided that Rockset is able to delivering the sub-second question latency wanted for real-time analytics, with higher efficiency than alternate options like Druid. Coupled with the sooner RockBench analysis that established Rockset’s means to research knowledge being written in actual time, we see that Rockset could be a good match for real-time analytics functions that require quick queries on the newest knowledge. These embrace many use circumstances like logistics monitoring, safety analytics, e-commerce personalization, gaming leaderboards and customer-facing SaaS analytics.

Whereas this analysis was carried out on a denormalized knowledge set, Rockset’s design additionally permits it to execute joins effectively, so functions aren’t restricted to working on denormalized knowledge. Future work would come with operating Rockset efficiency evaluations involving joins on normalized knowledge.

Moreover, SSB knowledge is effectively structured and due to this fact much less consultant of the real-life semi-structured knowledge units we generally come throughout. It ought to be famous that Rockset can assist the identical analytical SQL queries on complicated, nested knowledge as effectively.

Given Rockset’s means to supply each the write and browse efficiency required for real-time analytics, we invite you to incorporate Rockset in your consideration if you’re creating real-time analytics options or merchandise. Learn the Rockset Efficiency Analysis on the Star Schema Benchmark white paper to get the small print on how we ran the SSB analysis. Or, join a free Rockset account to strive operating your personal queries on Rockset!